The process involves using NIR ( near-infrared light) to trigger the eye to naturally heal itself. How the eye heals itself naturally is beyond me. You will have to refer to the scientists behind the research for that information.
Since experimental trials on animals have shown success, the scientists involved in the research are currently in the process of beginning human trials as soon as possible.
Although the main factor for the scientists is to get the NIR treatment to be successful on human patients, other aspects are important like, making the treatment cheaper and more easily accessible.
“Now work has begun on the use of red light in human patients. Testing the effect of the light treatment is one aspect of this work, the other is to develop devices that are more accessible, more convenient and cheaper for patients to use.” Said ANU scientist, Dr. Krisztina Valter.
Prevention is still king when dealing with bright-light eye damage. And Dr. Valter suggests that you should wear sun glasses at all times when dealing with light that could be bright enough to damage your eyes, for example, the sun (please don't look at the sun) and welding (I know that from personal experience... don't ask).
But there are times when you just can't avoid the damage and that's when NIR treatment comes in. Once they get the kinks out of the use of NIR, people with bright-light damaged eyes will have some new options in treating their eyes.